Essas aulas de inglês são para alunos intermediários e avançados de inglês como segunda língua. Eles incluem “Ler”, “Ouvir” e “Escrever”. Basta seguir a lição respondendo às perguntas à medida que as encontra.
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We are Mammals
People are mammals, and mammals are warm-blooded creatures, capable of maintaining a relatively constant internal temperature regardless of the environmental temperature. Body temperature control is one example of homeostasis—an organism’s self-regulating process that tends to maintain internal stability while adjusting to conditions in ways that are optimal for survival.
The optimal temperature of the human body is 37 °C (98.6 °F), but various factors can affect this value, including exposure to the elements in the environment, hormones, an individual’s metabolism, and disease, which can lead to excessively high or low body temperatures. Body temperature is regulated mainly by the hypothalamus in the brain. Feedback about body temperature is carried through the nervous system and circulatory system (whose pressure-sensitive receptors in the blood vessels work with the nervous system to collect and communicate information on blood pressure) to the brain, where the breathing rate, blood sugar levels, and metabolic rate are adjusted to compensate for temperature changes.
LISTENING EXERCISE: Watch the short four minute video about temperature regulation and then answer the five questions below.
NEW VOCABULARY: thermo-regulation, mechanisms, warming-up, cooling-down, homeostasis, stable, internal, environment, function, properly, enzymes, denature, thermoregulatory, hypothalamus, thermostat, receptors, tiny, blood vessels, figure out, conserve, generate, constrict, vaso-constriction, contract, erector muscles, stand on end, trap, layer, shiver, respiration, chemical reactions, released, waste, expand, vaso-dilate, surroundings, sweat, evaporates,
- Explain the term ‘homeostasis’ to your teacher.
- Why is 37 degrees the perfect temperature for the human body?
- Where in the human body is the thermostat (its name)?
- When you body needs to ‘warm-up’ what is the process called when your blood vessels contrict?
- What is the response called when our muscles contract automatically when we are cold.
Heat loss is promoted by reduction of muscular activity, by perspiration, and by heat-exchange mechanisms that allow blood to circulate near the skin surface. Heat loss is reduced by the body’s insulation mechanisms, including reduction of blood flow to the skin and the fat beneath the skin, and by use of clothing, shelter, and external heat sources. In addition, the body can generate heat through shivering, a response regulated by the hypothalamus. The range between high and low body temperatures constitutes the homeostatic plateau—the “normal” range that sustains life. As either of the two extremes is approached, corrective action (through negative feedback) returns the system to the normal range.
What is homeostasis, any self-regulating process by which biological systems tend to maintain stability while adjusting to conditions that are optimal for survival. If homeostasis is successful, life continues; if unsuccessful, disaster or death ensues. The stability attained is actually a dynamic equilibrium, in which continuous change occurs yet relatively uniform conditions prevail.
Any system in dynamic equilibrium tends to reach a steady state, a balance that resists outside forces of change. When such a system is disturbed, built-in regulatory devices respond to the departures to establish a new balance; such a process is one of feedback control. All processes of integration and coordination of function, whether mediated by electrical circuits or by nervous and hormonal systems, are examples of homeostatic regulation.
What is circulation, in anatomy and physiology, the continuous movement of blood throughout the body, driven by the pumping action of the heart. The circulation of the blood links the sites of oxygen utilization and uptake in the body; thus, it is critical to ensuring that oxygen-rich blood reaches tissues and that oxygen-poor blood is transported away from tissues and back to the lungs. The rapidity of circulation is determined by the output of the heart, which in turn is responsive to overall body requirements.
Two main circulatory routes
There are two main circulatory routes: pulmonary and systemic. The pulmonary circulation forms a closed circuit between the heart and the lungs, while the systemic circulation supplies oxygenated blood to and returning deoxygenated blood from the tissues of the body. In the systemic circulation, the left ventricle of the heart serves as the pumping chamber that circulates blood throughout the body.
In 150 words describe how you ‘keep cool’ in the summer or when you are exercising.
GRAMMAR TO USE:
In your text use as many irregular verbs as possible. Try to avoid using regular verbs. To do this you will need to search for alternatives to the common regular verbs that you are used to using. I have given you a list of irregular verbs below to help with your search.
Try doing the irregular verb exercise sheet below.