Grammar included:  “Received Pronunciation”     

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Expressions:  INVENTING  PART FOUR   

Here are 3 expressions related to      ‘Hypodermic Syringe ‘     along with their meanings and sample sentences:


1. “Sharp as a needle” – This idiom is used to describe someone who is very intelligent or quick-witted. It stems from the sharp point of a hypodermic syringe.

Example sentence: “You can’t get anything past Jenna; she’s as sharp as a needle when it comes to noticing inconsistencies in reports.”

2. “Like pulling teeth with no anesthesia” – Although not directly mentioning syringes, this idiom is often used in medical contexts. It describes a process that is exceptionally difficult or painful, much like having a tooth extraction without the numbing effects of an anesthetic injected by a syringe.

Example sentence: “Getting the approval for the new project was like pulling teeth with no anesthesia; it took months of persistence.”

3. “Injecting some life into” – This phrase references the medical use of syringes to inject substances into the body and is metaphorically applied to energize or revitalize something that has become dull or inactive.

Example sentence: “The team was losing morale, so the manager tried injecting some life into the project by organizing a team-building retreat.”

Homework section

SECTION ONE B     (Gap fill)  Find the missing past tence verbs.

The 1). ______________syringe, a vital tool in modern medicine, was developed through the work of several innovative minds. In the 19th  2). ______________, a Scottish doctor named Alexander Wood improved upon existing designs to create a needle that could inject 3). ______________ directly into the bloodstream. Paired with the hollow needle invented by Charles Pravaz, these advancements made it possible to 4). ___________________ with precision and minimal pain. The introduction of the hypodermic syringe  has enabled  breakthrough treatments and revolutionised  the way medications are administered. Over time, this invention has undergone many refinements, but its core function remains unchanged: to safely and efficiently deliver medicine to those in need.

Business Vocabulary

SECTION ONE C      (Words used in a business setting)

1. Due diligence – This refers to a comprehensive appraisal undertaken by a prospective buyer, especially to establish its assets and liabilities and evaluate its commercial potential.
Example sentence: Before finalizing the acquisition, the investment firm conducted thorough due diligence to assess the true value of the target company.

2. Scalability – This term describes the capability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work or its potential to be enlarged to accommodate that growth.
Example sentence: Scalability is paramount for startups, as they must be able to manage increased demand without compromising performance.

3. Leverage – In a business context, leverage refers to the use of borrowed capital or debt to increase the potential return of an investment.
Example sentence: The company decided to leverage its existing assets to secure additional funding for research and development.

4. Paradigm shift – This means a fundamental change in approach or underlying assumptions, often leading to transformative change in strategies or processes.
Example sentence: The advent of digital streaming caused a paradigm shift in the music industry, challenging traditional distribution models.

5. Cash Flow – This financial term refers to the total amount of money being transferred into and out of a business, particularly affecting liquidity.
Example sentence: Despite its profitability on paper, the company faced serious challenges due to negative cash flow issues caused by late customer payments.


Remember that during the lesson we are continuing our RP practice to be able to improve our pronunciation and diction.


READING (Concentrate on your pronunciation of the ‘ed’ sounds. You will find the ‘ed’ lesson at the end of this English lesson.


1). The invention of the hypodermic syringe was a significant milestone in the field of medicine, transforming the way drugs can be delivered into the body. Prior to its invention, treatments were largely limited to oral or topical applications, which were often ineffective for certain conditions. The hypodermic syringe allowed for direct delivery of substances into the bloodstream, thus offering a quicker and more efficient method of administering medications.

VOCABULARY: Now discuss any new vocabulary.

2). The history of this revolutionary device traces back to the 19th century. It began with early experiments in intravenous injections, but the true breakthrough came with the work of a Scottish physician named Alexander Wood. In 1853, Wood improved upon existing designs by combining a hollow needle with a syringe. The fine needle allowed for more precise insertion into veins without causing significant damage to blood vessels.

VOCABULARY: Now discuss any new vocabulary.

3).  Wood’s design was further refined by Charles Pravaz, a French surgeon who independently developed a similar syringe that could accurately control dosages. His syringe incorporated a screw mechanism for measuring the injected fluid. The combined efforts of Wood and Pravaz led to what is recognized as the modern hypodermic syringe.

VOCABULARY: Now discuss any new vocabulary.

VIDEO LISTENING  SECTION:  Watch the video below and then answer the three questions below.


  1. When did his wife die?
  2. What was the myth about the death of his wife?
  3. What is another word for a doctor?

4).  While these advancements greatly improved medical practice, it was not until sterilization techniques became widespread that syringes could be used safely and without the risk of spreading infections. We should also consider studying details on how the hypodermic syringe has evolved over time and its impact on healthcare practices, as well as thinking about current advances in syringe technology like single-use disposables and safety-engineered devices.

VOCABULARY:  Now discuss any new vocabulary. 


Explain the answers to these questions to your teacher.

  1.  Describe in detail how a nurse would administer a vaccine using a  Hypodermic Syringe.


Write a paragraph describing your feelings about receiving a vaccination via Hypodermic Syringe


How to pronounce the ‘ed’ sounds in regular verbs.


‘ED’ practice text

In this text remember that we are practicing our RP but at the same time we are going to practice how to pronounce the ‘ed’ in regular verbs.  Here is an explanation.

In English, the pronunciation of the past tense suffix “-ed” varies and is determined by the final sound of the root verb:

1. /t/ Sound: We use this sound when the root verb ends in voiceless consonants (except for /t/), such as /p/, /k/, /s/, /ʃ/ (sh), /ʧ/ (ch), and /f/. For example:
– “walk” becomes “walked” and is pronounced as /wa:   kt/
– “laugh” becomes “laughed” and is pronounced as /laugh:  ft/

2. /d/ Sound: We use this sound with root verbs ending in voiced sounds, which include all vowel sounds and voiced consonants (except for /d/), such as /b/, /g/, /v/, /z/, etc. For example:
– “call” becomes “called” and is pronounced as /ca  lld/
– “rob” becomes “robbed” and is pronounced as /rob  bd/

3. /ɪd/ or just /d/ Sound: We use this sound distinctly when the root verb ends in either a /t/ or a /d/. This additional syllable makes it easier to pronounce. For example:
– “want” becomes “wanted” and is pronounced as /ˈwant:  id/
– “need” becomes “needed” and is pronounced as /ˈneed:  id/


WAR:   From Trenches to Drones to Space

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